The member states have a long history of domestic terrorism. Despite dramatic attacks in Spain in 2004 and the UK in 2005, jihadi terrorism was relatively rare in the EU until 2015. Starting in 2015 there have been jihadi terrorist attacks in France, Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the UK, some of which inflicted large numbers of fatalities. The EU’s member states individually and collectively have sought respond to this challenge.
3 Nov. 2016 French Consul General Louis de Corail discussed “Responding to Tragedy: A French Perspective on the Challenge of Terrorism”